Bullying, while thought to be a problem confined to adolescence, is actually more common amongst adults than many are led to believe. In fact, nearly a third of adults have experienced bullying, and typically it happens in the workplace. Dr. Ron Riggio, Professor of Psychology and Leadership at Claremont McKenna College, explains that oftentimes child bullies will grow up into adult bullies if bullying is successful for them when they are young. Bullying can be done for many reasons, but Charles Sophy, Medical Director of the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services, says that it is usually connected to a person’s insecurities and low self-esteem.
In the workplace the bully is often a boss but other coworkers can be bullies too. Most workplace bullies are men, but women bully too, and when they do other women are typically their targets. Dr. Riggio explains that bullies in the workplace tend to pick out people who are different, often workers with disabilities, or those who are part of underrepresented groups. The effects from bullying can be severe many victims will suffer from psychological problems, such as anxiety, appetite and sleep changes, and depression.
Why does bullying continue to be present in the workplace, and how can the victims be helped? Riggio explains that the bullying is often subtle, verbal, and behind the victim’s back. Even so, many people say they have witnessed a coworker being bullied, but they did not say anything. Dr. Gary Namie, Director at Workplace Bullying Institute, says that this is a problem because victims should not be in charge of reporting their bully. He explains that three groups of people can help victims of workplace bullying: coworkers offering support by getting over their fear of being the next victim, employers enforcing regulations, and lawmakers creating anti-workplace bullying bills. While workplace bullying has not been stopped some states are beginning to take a stand against it.
Ron Riggio, Professor of Psychology and Leadership at Claremont McKenna College
Dr. Charles Sophy, Medical Director, Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services
Dr. Gary Namie, Director at Workplace Bullying Institute
Fiber is an important part of a daily diet, but many people do not know what fiber does for the body. Dr. Hannah Holscher, Assistant Professor of Nutrition at the University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign, explains that fiber is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is found in plants which human enzymes cannot break down, so the body relies on microbes.
But why is fiber so important for the human body? According to Dr. Andrew Gewirtz, Professor of Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University, fiber helps nourish beneficial bacteria in the intestine that is needed to aid digestion, keep the immune system strong, and block potential pathogens. Without fiber in your diet, this bacteria becomes malnourished, decreasing the number of them present. Dr. Gewirtz explains that discoveries from experiments on mice show that this decrease in bacteria can lead to a number of health issues.
It is important to maintain a high fiber diet in order to ensure proper nourishment of these beneficial bacteria. However, many people stick to one type of fiber rather than trying a few. People should eat a variety of fruits, vegetables, and other high-fiber foods to give their bodies more than one kind of fiber. While it can be difficult to consume the suggested amount of fiber everyday, the positive health benefits are worth it.
Dr. Hannah Holscher, Assistant Professor of Nutrition at University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign
Dr. Andrew Gewirtz, Professor of Biomedical Sciences at Georgia Sate University
The ozone layer is coming back. After many decades of depletion, NASA scientists say the protective ozone layer of the atmosphere is recovering and a hole in the ozone over Antarctica is filling in. Phasing out of chlorofluorocarbon chemicals is getting the credit, according to the study in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. The ozone layer absorbs more than 97 percent of the dangerous ultraviolet radiation reaching earth.
Eating a diet high in fresh tomatoes and apples may help slow the natural aging of your lungs, and may even restore some of the lung damage caused by smoking. The study in the European Respiratory Journal shows that lung function is strikingly better in ex-smokers who follow such a diet. However, tomato sauce and processed foods containing fruits and vegetables did not contribute a protective effect. Researchers say the lungs start to decline in most people around age 30.
And finally whether a person is a spendthrift or a tightwad may be set by age five. A study in the Journal of Behavioral Decision-Making shows that children form emotional reactions to spending and saving money between age five and 10, and they translate into the child’s eventual spending behaviors. Researchers say tightwads experience emotional pain connected to spending but spendthrifts don’t have those emotional brakes. Rhose attitudes develop independently of their parents’ spending habits.