Donated blood saves 4.5 million American lives each year, but has a short shelf life, low portability and must be available for all blood types. Researchers have sought safe and effective blood substitutes for 60 years, and a few viable alternatives are in animal testing.
Blood Substitutes: DNA mutations happen all the time in the body, but the immune system usually detects and deals with them. When the system fails, cancer results. Yet some animals, such as elephants, almost never get cancer, and scientists have learned that the elephant DNA repair system is 20 times more powerful than the human system. Experts explain how they hope to tap this knowledge.
E-cigarettes and Oral Health: Experts have a lot of questions still unanswered about electronic cigarettes, but evidence is starting to accumulate that the effect on the oral cavity can be as significant as tobacco cigarettes. An expert discusses.